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Buddhadharma : Spring 2016
74 buddhadharma: the practitioner’s quarterly spring 2016 than a transliteration. Chan, Zen, Son, Samten are linked not only by termi- nology but also by some (though not all) aspects of practice, as well as by their overlapping accounts of lineage genealogy and transregional transmis- sion. Nevertheless, these traditions each evolved in distinctive, though often mutually recognizable, ways. Interestingly, Tibetan Zen covers practices, texts, and ideas that are in some cases dramatically unlike what we often associate with either Zen or Tibet. The most surprising of these are combinations of Zen and tantra. Both Tibetan and Chinese Chan Buddhist teachers at Dunhuang show up in the manuscripts teaching a range of meth- ods explicitly linking Zen meditation to tantric sadhana practice. For instance, the Zen meditation techniques known as “observing the mind” (techniques revieWs that were very popular at Dunhuang) were apparently used as part of tantric practice. In a related vein, some of the texts van Schaik translates here sug- gest that “the ordination platform used in Zen rituals could be regarded as a physical representation of the tantric mandala.” Perhaps not coincidentally, van Schaik points to frequent exhorta- tions to secrecy for Zen found in these materials. We may not think of Zen as a set of secret instructions, but in the Dunhuang lineages, Zen teachings, like tantric practices, could be considered special and esoteric. van Schaik emphasizes that he doesn’t want to call the interplay be- tween Zen and tantra in the Dunhuang period “syncretism,” which he says would imply that Zen and tantra were understood at that time as two sepa- rate things. He argues instead that the van Schaik explains at the outset that he has made a strategic choice to use the Japanese term “Zen” for what he calls a “family of traditions in Chi- nese, Tibetan, Japanese, Korean, and other languages.” Chan in Chinese, Son in Korean, and Zen in Japanese— all these terms are pronunciations of the Sanskrit term dhyana, or medita- tion. Tibetans for their part use the term samten, which is a translation of the Sanskrit word for meditation rather tibetan zen: discovering a lost tradition by sam van schaik snow lion, 2015 240 pages; $21.95 village zendo A Zen Temple in the Heart of Manhattan Daily Meditation, Workshops and Retreats Abbot Roshi Enkyo O’Hara 588 Broadway, Suite 1108 New York City villagezendo.org 1-855-GO-WEST firstname.lastname@example.org www.uwest.edu For more information please scan Join one of only four accredited MASTER OF DIVINITY programs specifcally for Buddhists in the U.S. The 72 unit program is designed to meet the needs of those who wish to engage in spiritual care and counseling work. ADMISSIONS REQUIREMENTS Bachelor’s Degree 3.0 GPA Specialize in the study of Buddhism and comparative religion and receive a MASTER OF ARTS DEGREE OR DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE IN RELIGIOUS STUDIES