using the arrow buttons.
by clicking on the page.
the page around when zoomed in by dragging it.
the zoom using the slider when zoomed-in.
by clicking on the zoomed-in page.
by entering text in the search field, and select "This Issue" or "All Issues"
by clicking on thumbnails to select pages, and then press the print button.
displays sections with thumbnails and descriptions.
displays a slider of thumbnails. Click on a page to jump.
allows you to browse the full archive.
about your subscription?
Buddhadharma : Winter 2007
winter 2007| 48 |buddhadharma plete, we can just forget Western psychology and therapy. We can have a wiser and more nuanced conversation now, one that transcends the stereo- types we might have clung to thirty years ago. Even though Buddhism is a complete path, stu- dents do not always have access to the complete teachings in an environment where they can spend a great deal of time with a teacher. I had a very close relationship with my teacher Ajahn Chah, but today people often don’t get to have the regular, close relationship with a teacher that they need to work through everything they’re going through. Also, there are many different kinds of teach- ers and they specialize, so one teacher alone may not be offering the complete package, which is understandable and fine. There are scholars, who may not know how to work with emotions or relationship or trauma. There are retreat masters, who know how to work in retreat and who know a great deal about luminous states of conscious- ness, but they may not be skilled at working with right speech, right action, and right livelihood— those parts of the eightfold path having to do with outer activity. There are teachers who focus on emptiness but may not really be skilled in helping their students in other ways. I know, for example, a beautiful dharma teacher who was trained in the Zen tradition and who works with veterans using the practices of his tradition. But he’s not actually that comfortable with anger and conflict. He doesn’t have the kind of Western psychologi- cal training that can help one deal with people in those states, so I’m not sure he’s actually that good at helping them with intense anger. Yes, Buddhism is complete and it’s wonderful. But there are also a variety of very helpful, skill- ful means coming from Western psychology that complement what someone can get from a given teacher and a given practice. These have been used by the majority of our Buddhist communities in the West. There’s tremendous benefit that comes from the tools of Western psychotherapy because they can allow a person to be present as a wit- ness. They also have good technologies for going into the body and working with the content of experience, something that particular teachers or techniques might not offer. harvey aronson: I like to look at this whole issue from a cross-cultural perspective. In traditional Tibetan Buddhism, for example, there was a lot of cultural stability. There was an extended family system with extensive contact between child and parent. Buddhism worked extraordinarily well in The AbhidhAmmA Cure bhikkhu bodhi and u rewata dhamma examine how the abhidhamma teachings can help us purify our negative mental states. the system that the abhidhamma Pitaka articulates is simultan eously a philosophy, a psychology, and an ethics, all integrated into the framework of a program for liberation. the abhidhamma’s attempt to comprehend the nature of reality, contrary to that of classical science in the West, does not proceed from the standpoint of a neutral observer looking outward toward the external world. the primary concern of the abhidhamma is to understand the nature of experience, and thus the reality on which it focuses is conscious reality—the world as given in experience— comprising both knowledge and the known in the widest sense. for this reason, the philosophical enterprise of the abhidhamma shades off into a phenomenological psychology. to facilitate the understanding of experienced reality, the abhi dhamma embarks upon an elaborate analysis of the mind as it presents itself to introspective meditation. it classifies conscious ness into a variety of types, specifies the factors and functions of each type, correlates them with their objects and physiological bases, and shows how the different types of consciousness link up with each other and with material phenomena to constitute the ongoing process of experience. this analysis of mind is not motivated by theoretical curiosity but by the overriding practical aim of the buddha’s teaching, the attainment of deliverance from suffering. since the buddha traces suffering to our tainted attitudes—a mental orientation rooted in greed, hatred, and delusion—the abhidhamma’s phenomeno logical psychology also takes on the character of a psychological ethics, understanding the term “ethics” not in the narrow sense of a code of morality but as a complete guide to noble living and mental purification. accordingly, we find that the abhidhamma distinguishes states of mind principally on the basis of ethical criteria: the wholesome and the unwholesome, the beautiful fac tors and the defilements. its schematization of consciousness follows a hierarchical plan that corresponds to the successive stages of purity to which the buddhist disciple attains by prac tice of the buddha’s path. this plan traces the refinement of the mind through the progression of meditative absorptions, the fine materialsphere and immaterialsphere jhanas, then through the stages of insight and the wisdom of the supramundane paths and fruits. finally, it shows the whole scale of ethical development to culminate in the perfection of purity attained with the mind’s irreversible emancipation from all defilements. from A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, buddhist Publication society, kandy, sri lanka.