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Buddhadharma : Spring 2016
spring 2016 buddhadharma: the practitioner’s quarterly 75 revieWs Dunhuang manuscripts reveal an older Buddhist world, now strange to us. In this older world of practice and trans- mission, “the firm distinctions imposed by the later traditions” did not yet exist; the meanings of terms like “Zen” were still being defined. For those readers who have won- dered about some of the possible links or historical interactions in Tibet between Zen-style meditation, Dzogchen medi- tation, and tantric practice, the book offers tantalizing new clues and possi- bilities, although it opens up many more questions than it answers. van Schaik ends the volume with a translation of a lovely passage describing what are said to be the two kinds of teachers, one emphasizing tantra, one Zen. The first type is the master who teaches atiyoga, which in the Dunhuang manuscripts is a synonym for Dzogchen, or Great Perfection practice. He or she is like “A great garuda who cuts through the sky yet is aware of all living beings, clarify- ing the vehicles individually, yet cutting through space.” The other type is the master who teaches Zen (here referred to as “the master who teaches the sutras”): “Like the kind of geese who never hurries, he teaches the meaning of the lineage of masters, showing directly the practical application of the words... Understanding the hidden secret is the quality of such a master.” van Schaik interprets this passage, in which the two styles of teacher are side by side, as evidence that the tantric and Zen teach- ings were seen as complementary and that both roles could even be assumed by a single teacher, depending on the audience. The intriguing image of complemen- tary and overlapping approaches to Zen and tantra in the early Tibetan Buddhist milieu of the Tibetan Empire and Tang China is echoed by van Schaik’s main introductory essay, which for many readers may be the most important and revelatory part of the book. van Schaik urges us to rethink many of our ideas about the history of Tibetan Bud- dhism and Zen (or perhaps we could say dhyana traditions), together with our ideas about Tibetan intellectual history in general, especially from the crucial period of the Tibetan Empire, roughly the seventh through ninth centuries. Tibetan Buddhism as we know it today was shaped in part by argu- ments over how best to present Bud- dhist teachings. Some Tibetan scholars and meditators framed their teachings in terms of a gradual path to enlight- enment, an approach famous from the “Stages of the Path” or Lamrim 䴀愀爀挀栀 (ᄀ)㔀ⴀ(ᄀ)㜀 䰀䄀䴀䄀 䬀䄀刀䴀䄀 䐀刀伀䐀䠀唀䰀 䴀䔀䐀䤀吀䄀吀䤀伀一 䐀伀䔀匀 䄀䘀䘀䔀䌀吀 夀伀唀刀 䈀刀䄀䤀一Ⰰ 䠀䔀䄀䰀吀䠀 䄀一䐀 夀伀唀刀 䰀䤀䘀䔀 䄀瀀爀椀氀 ⴀアハート゚ꀀ 䬀䠀䔀一倀伀 䬀䄀刀吀䠀䄀刀 刀䤀一倀伀䌀䠀䔀ꀀ 吀䠀䔀 吀䠀䔀 吀䔀䄀䌀䠀䔀刀 䄀一䐀 匀吀唀䐀䔀一吀 刀䔀䰀䄀吀䤀伀一匀䠀䤀倀ꀀ 䄀瀀爀椀氀 㠀ⴀ ꀀ 䰀䄀䴀䄀 吀䄀匀䠀䤀 䐀伀一䐀唀倀ꀀ 伀唀刀 䨀伀唀刀一䔀夀 吀䠀刀伀唀䜀䠀 吀䠀䔀 䈀䄀刀䐀伀ꀀ 䄀瀀爀椀氀 (ᄀ)(ᄀ)ⴀ(ᄀ)㐀 䬀䠀䔀一倀伀 䬀䠀䔀一倀伀 䬀䄀刀䴀䄀 吀䔀一䬀夀伀一䜀 䄀圀䄀䬀䔀一䤀一䜀 䨀伀夀㨀 䰀䤀嘀䤀一䜀 䤀一 䠀䄀刀䴀伀一夀 圀䤀吀䠀 吀䠀䔀 䔀䄀刀吀䠀 倀栀漀琀漀㨀䜀爀愀挀攀伀ᤠ䬀攀攀昀昀攀 圀漀漀搀猀琀漀挀欀Ⰰ 一⸀ 夀⸀ 戀 㠀㐀㔀⸀㘀㜀㤀⸀㔀㤀 㘀Ⰰ 䔀砀琀⸀ アハート゚ 戀 漀昀ǻ挀攀䀀欀愀最礀甀⸀漀爀最 戀 眀眀眀⸀欀愀最礀甀⸀漀爀最ꀀ 䠀椀最栀氀椀最栀琀猀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 匀瀀爀椀渀最 倀爀漀最爀愀洀 䬀䄀刀䴀䄀 吀刀䤀夀䄀一䄀 䐀䠀䄀刀䴀䄀䌀䠀䄀䬀刀䄀 一漀爀琀栀 䄀洀攀爀椀挀愀渀 匀攀愀琀 漀昀 䠀椀猀 䠀漀氀椀渀攀猀猀 琀栀攀 䜀礀愀氀眀愀渀最 䬀愀爀洀愀瀀愀 ZAZEN & YOUR ZEN SANGHA Jundo Cohen, teacher www.treeleaf.org Treeleaf is the online practice place for people who cannot easily commute to a Zen Center due to health, location, work, childcare or family needs. We provide netcast Zazen, Retreats, discussion, Jukai, the support of fellow practitioners, interaction with a teacher, and all other activities of a Zen Buddhist Sangha, all fully online, accessible anytime, without charge. The focus is Shikantaza “Just Sitting” Zazen. online, any place, any time you need Come build the future of online Zen Community and Practice