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Buddhadharma : Summer 2018
REVIEW | JACQUELINE STONE 105 discrepancies as the product of geographi- cally distinct Buddhist communities pro- ducing scriptures over time. Chinese exegetes, however, regarded all sutras as the teachings of Shakyamuni Buddha, and they reasoned that differences among them must reflect skillful means the Buddha had compassionately employed to instruct people of varying dispositions and abili- ties. They accordingly sought to uncover underlying principles or frameworks that would make clear how the disparate teach- ings were interrelated and reveal the Bud- dha’s unifying, salvific intent. The resulting systems of doctrinal classification (pan- jiao) brought about remarkable develop- ments in Buddhist thought. Zhiyi’s grand synthesis proved especially influential, not only because of its extraordinary scope but also because it encompassed both doctrine and practice. Both, Zhiyi stressed, are essential for achieving liberation, like the two wings of a bird or two wheels of a cart. He was as critical of dogmatic textu- alists who, he said, failed to internalize the doctrines they studied as he was of will- fully ignorant meditators whose practice, uninformed by learning, he believed could readily go astray. While mustering extensive doctri- nal support, the Mohe zhiguan chiefly addresses practice. Swanson’s title, Clear Serenity, Quiet Insight, derives from the opening sentence of Guanding’s introduc- tion, which reads: “The luminous quies- cence of cessation-and-contemplation was unknown in prior ages.” The title offers a key to Zhiyi’s inclusive vision. Earlier in his career, Zhiyi had employed the word chan, or “meditative concentration” (Jpn., zen; Sanskrit, dhyana), as a comprehensive term for Buddhist practice. Later, however, he came to believe chan overemphasized quiescence and did not reflect the dynamic side of Buddhist practice. In its place, he adopted the term zhiguan, “cessation-and- contemplation” in Swanson’s translation. Zhiguan is a literal rendering of samatha- vipassana, or “calming and insight,” famil- iar terms for two paired modes of medita- tion. But for Zhiyi, the meaning of zhiguan extended far beyond these two traditional meditation categories and encompassed moral cultivation, meditation, and wis- dom. In their introduction to Swanson’s volume, Neal Donner and Daniel Steven- son, pioneer scholars of Tiantai Buddhism, explain that zhiguan may be understood on three levels. As practice, or the cause for awakening, it means cessation (or calming) and contemplation. As effect, or what is achieved through practice, it means tranquility and insight. And as an expression of the true nature of reality, it means quiescence and illumination. Fundamental to the Mohe zhiguan is a principle known as the threefold truth of emptiness, conventional existence, and the middle, along with a corresponding three- fold contemplation for discerning it. For Zhiyi, the threefold truth represented the “deep structure” of the Buddha’s teachings, and he used this principle to systematize both doctrine and practice. The truth of emptiness means that all phenomena, aris- ing through causes and conditions, are fleeting and lack independent self-essence. The contemplation that Zhiyi termed “entering emptiness from the conventional” collapses all categories, hierarchies, and divisions to reveal a realm of absolute equality, interpenetration, and non-dif- ferentiation, freeing the practitioner from attachments to desires and mistaken views.